Publications & Reviews

New Article: "Flying less: personal health and environmental cobenefits"

Scott A. Cohen & Joseph Kantenbacher (2019): Flying less: personal health and environmental co-benefits,
Journal of Sustainable Tourism, DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2019.1585442

Abstract: Recent and projected growth in global aeromobility is poised to substantially expand aviation’s contribution to anthropogenic climate change. With limited prospects for technical- or policy-based reductions in sectoral carbon emissions, behavioural shifts in the form of decreased demand for flying become increasingly important. This conceptual article introduces an innovative approach to aviation demand reduction in the form of a co-benefits approach, wherein conventional pro-environmental messaging is augmented by the articulation of the negative personal health impacts of flying. Using a critical review approach based on secondary literature, we examine frequent flying and theories of environmental behaviour change before examining how co-benefits approaches have been used in other domains. We then identify global and local environmental harms from aviation and synthesise these with the existing literature on the personal health impacts of frequent flying, which includes both physiological effects and psycho-social harms. We find that flying less would engender a much wider range of benefits for individual health, than for the environment, and that the health benefits would likely be more salient for frequent flyers than environmental benefits. We conclude that the personal nature of health impacts will add needed salience and urgency to efforts to reduce unsustainable aeromobility.

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New Article: "No sustainability for tourism without gender equality"

Daniela Moreno Alarcón & Stroma Cole (2019) No sustainability for tourism without gender equality, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, DOI: 10.1080/09669582.2019.1588283

Abstract: This paper explores the interconnections between the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and tourism from a gender perspective. It is the first paper to take a critical analysis of how SDG 5 relates to tourism, and how tourism and gender equality interconnects with the other SDGs. First, we analyse the recent gender sensitive sustainable development agenda in order to set out the challenges – both past and present – that any sector involved in sustainable development faces. We then explore the links between the SDGs and tourism development from a gender perspective. In the third part of the paper, based on the field experiences of the authors, we use the examples of SDG 6 (“clean water and sanitation”) and SDG 8 (“sustainable economic growth and decent work”) to highlight the interconnections between gender equality and the other SDGs. Finally, we suggest some tools to help tourism businesses improve their performance with respect to gender equality
 thereby enhancing their capacity to contribute towards the achievement of the SDGs. We argue that, without tackling gender equality in a meaningful and substantive way, tourism’s potential to contribute to the SDGs will be reduced and sustainable tourism will remain an elusive “pot of gold”.

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UN: Financing for Sustainable Development Report 2019

Financing for Sustainable Development Report 2019New York - 4 April 2019: Sixty-plus international organizations, led by the United Nations and including the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank Group and World Trade Organization, jointly sounded the alarm Thursday in a new report, warning that unless national and international financial systems are revamped, the world’s governments will fail to keep their promises on such critical issues as combatting climate change and eradicating poverty by 2030.

In their 2019 Financing for Sustainable Development Report, the international organizations find some good news: investment has gained strength in some countries and interest in sustainable investing is growing, with 75 per cent of individual investors showing interest in how their investments affect the world.

And yet, greenhouse gas emissions grew 1.3 per cent in 2017; investment in many countries is falling; and 30 developing countries are now at high risk or already in debt distress. At the same time, global growth is expected to have peaked at around 3 per cent.

Changing the current trajectory in financing sustainable development is not just about raising additional investment, says the report. Achieving global goals depends on supportive financial systems, and conducive global and national policy environments.

Yet the report warns that creating favorable conditions is becoming more challenging. Rapid changes in technology, geopolitics, and climate are remaking our economies and societies, and existing national and multilateral institutions -- which had helped lift billions out of poverty -- are now struggling to adapt. Confidence in the multilateral system has been undermined, in part because it has failed to deliver returns equitably, with most people in the world living in countries with increasing inequality.

“Trust in the multilateral system itself is eroding, in part because we are not delivering inclusive and sustainable growth for all,” said António Guterres, Secretary-General of the United Nations, in his foreword to the report. “Our shared challenge is to make the international trading and financial systems fit for purpose to advance sustainable development and promote fair globalization.”

The international agencies recommend concrete steps to overhaul the global institutional architecture and make the global economy and global finance more sustainable, including:

  • supporting a shift towards long-term investment horizons with sustainability risks central to investment decisions;
  • revisiting mechanisms for sovereign debt restructuring to respond to more complex debt instruments and a more diverse creditor landscape;
  • revamping the multilateral trading system;
  • addressing challenges to tax systems that inhibit countries from mobilizing adequate resources in an increasingly digitalized world economy; and
  • addressing growing market concentration that extends across borders, with impacts on inequality.

At the national level, the report puts forward a roadmap for countries to revamp their public and private financial systems to mobilize resources for sustainable investment. It introduces tools for countries to align financing policies with national sustainable development strategies and priorities.

One example of the opportunities and challenges the report discusses is in new technologies and fintech (digitally enabled innovation in the financial sector). With more than half a billion people gaining access to financial services in recent years, the appeal of fintech is clear. But as new players enter and rapidly change the financing marketplace, regulators struggle to keep pace. As fintech grows in importance, activities outside the regulatory framework, if left unsupervised, may put financial stability at risk.

Fintech’s promise can pay off with regulatory approaches that address these concerns, but these need to be implemented without stifling innovation. To this end, the report emphasizes the importance of discussions between fintech companies, financial institutions and regulators. It finds that regulatory attention will need to shift to financial activities and their underlying risks, no matter the entity that engages in them, rather than by institutional type.

“We have a major opportunity to overcome bottlenecks in sustainable financing in 2019”, said Mr. Liu Zhenmin, Under-Secretary-General for Economic and Social Affairs and Chair of the Task Force that issued the report. “The responsibility rests with governments to recommit to multilateralism, and to take policy actions that will create a sustainable and prosperous future.”

The Task Force report is available at

Background: The report is a joint product of the Inter-agency Task Force on Financing for Development, which is comprised of more than 60 United Nations Agencies and international organizations. The Financing for Sustainable Development Office of the UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs serves as the substantive editor and coordinator of the Task Force, in close cooperation the World Bank Group, the IMF, WTO, UNCTAD, and UNDP. The Task Force was mandated by the Addis Ababa Action Agenda and is chaired by Mr. Zhenmin LIU, Under-Secretary General for Economic and Social Affairs. The full copy of the report and the annex will be uploaded to:

This report is the basis for discussions at the ECOSOC Forum on Financing for Development (15-18 April 2019), where Member States agree on measures necessary to mobilize sustainable financing. The SDG Investment Fair, which brings together government officials and investors, will also be held 15-16 April at the UN Headquarters. More information on both events is at:

The Invisible Burden of Tourism

New Report seeks to uncover and address the 'Invisible Burden' of Tourism

Bristol, UK - 26 March 2019: A new report published today describes how destinations must uncover and account for tourism’s hidden costs or “invisible burden” so as to stop placing ecosystems, cultural wonders, and community life at increasing risk. Authored by Megan Epler Wood, Mark Milstein and Kathleen Ahamed-Broadhurst, this concise, 40-page study titled “Destinations at Risk: The Invisible Burden of Tourism" proves beyond reasonable doubt that the tourism industry's foundation 'will crack under its own weight' unless vital destination assets are protected and managed.

Amid increasing concern about Overtourism, the report uncovers root causes for the problem and offers logical and integrated analysis of why it is transpiring, including the low ability of local government in both advanced and emerging economies. It argues that destination managers, businesses and experts must collaborate using science-based, data-driven analysis to create new local accounting systems that capture the full range of tourism costs, to build new skills and cross sector collaboration to achieve effective spatial planning, manage demand for public utilities, and evaluate the availability of local resources.

New article focuses on young international vacationers’ waste reduction and recycling intentions

Impact of social/personal norms and willingness to sacrifice on young vacationers’ pro-environmental intentions for waste reduction and recycling

by Heesup Han, Jongsik Hu, Hyeon-Cheol Kim & Wansoo Kim

in Journal of Sustainable Tourism, Volume 26, 2018 - Issue 12, pp 2117-2133


Despite its importance, young vacationers’ waste reduction and recycling decision formation remains unknown. This research was designed to investigate the intricate associations among social norms (descriptive and injunctive), willingness to sacrifice, and personal norm by developing a theoretical framework for young vacationers’ waste reduction and recycling intentions. The impact of gender was also examined. A quantitative approach employing a structural equation modeling was utilized. Our results revealed that descriptive norm, injunctive norm, and willingness to sacrifice were significant activators of personal norm. In addition, the direct impact of descriptive and injunctive norms on pro-environmental intentions was found. Personal norm acted as a mediator. Moreover, the proposed theoretical framework was further broadened by the significant moderating effect of gender on the injunctive norm–intentions linkage. Overall, this research helps researchers and practitioners better understand young international vacationers’ waste reduction and recycling intentions while traveling.

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New study stresses the value of dignity in tourism employment

Guildford, UK - 12 February 2019: A new study in tourism employment finds that many jobs are failing to provide dignity in employment. The tourism sector, which accounts for nearly 10 per cent of global employment, risks undermining rather than contributing to the United Nation's Sustainable Development Goals, according to three academics from the University of Surrey.

Anke Winchenbach, Dr. Paul Hanna and Professor Graham Miller have co-authored a paper, published today in the Journal of Sustainable Tourism, which reveals examples of where the tourism sector is failing to offer 'decent working practise' to employees, contributing to their sense of self-worth and overall performance.

Principles of Festival Management

New Publication: Principles of Festival Management

"Principles of Festival Management"

Authors: Chris Newbold, Jennie Jordan, Paul Kelly, Kristy Diaz

Goodfellow Publishers: ISBN: 978-1-911396-82-6 HBK; 978-1-911396-83-3 PBK; 978-1-911396-84-0 eBook

Principles of Festival Management is a complete guide to developing and running a festival from inception to evaluation, covering all aspects of festival management and key central issues and contemporary debates.

It focuses on the practical skills and knowledge needed for successful festival management, with a step by step approach to the planning, managing and staging processes. Theoretically underpinned, it provides a combination of management perspectives, practical advice and festival studies understandings across a diverse range of festivals, art-forms, audiences, locations, impacts and business models, enabling readers to think critically about the many challenges facing festivals managers.

Tourism and visitor management in protected areas

New IUCN Report: Tourism and visitor management in protected areas : guidelines for sustainability

Authors: Leung, Yu-Fai, Spenceley, Anna, Hvenegaard, Glen, Buckley, Ralf, Groves, Craig and others.

IUCN, Gland, Switzerland, November 2018
ISBN:  978-2-8317-1898-9

The 3rd edition of the official guidelines for sustainable tourism in protected areas, written by 58 authors has been published by the IUCN World Commission on Protected Areas (WCPA). The guidelines, which include case studies and best practices. are available for free download.  

Abstract:  Protected areas are a key component of any global conservation strategy. Tourism provides a crucial and unique way of fostering visitors’ connection with protected area values, making it a potentially positive force for  conservation. Protected area tourism’s economic benefits—which depend on beautiful natural areas, healthy wildlife and nature, and authentic cultures—can also be a powerful argument for conservation. Tourism in protected areas  is a major part of the global tourism industry—an industry whose scale and impacts are enormous. Such a high volume of visitors implies certain needs for fundamental infrastructure and requirements for employment and human services, all of which have ramifications for the economy, society, culture and the environment. These Guidelines provide guidance on key issues to help managers achieve sustainable tourism in protected areas.

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The Ecosystem Approach for the Marine Environment and the Position of Humans: Lessons from the EU Natura 2000 Regime

in David Langlet and Rosemary Rayfuse, The Ecosystem Approach in Ocean Planning and Governance, Brill/Nijhoff 2019, 195-220

by Kees Bastmeijer, Professor of Nature Conservation Law, Tilburg University


It is often emphasized that humans are also part of the ecosystem and that therefore the ecosystem approach includes human use. This chapter discusses the question of what this consideration should mean for implementing the ecosystem approach. For this purpose attention focuses on the Natura 2000 regime and its implementation. Although this regime is not explicitly based on the ecosystem approach, its legal requirements connect well with the characteristics of the ecosystem approach. Furthermore, much experience has been gained in implementing the Natura 2000 regime and a substantial part of the legal debates focuses on the relationship between human ambitions and effective protection of nature in the EU. From these experiences important lessons may be drawn for the implementation of the ecosystem approach under other legal regimes, such as the Marine Strategy Framework Directive. The discussions show the difficulty of applying an ecosystem approach at a moment in time where the ecosystem has already been substantially affected and – related to this – the importance of ecological restoration. The discussions also show that it is crucial to be aware of the risks of giving too much space in the system for balancing interests: companies and governments will search for approaches to prioritize social and economic interests over environmental ones. If the aim is to ensure inclusion of humans as part of an ecosystem in a manner that ensures the ecosystem is either in or will be restored to intact and healthy conditions, then strict legal requirements to prevent over-use are essential.

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Creating synergies between cultural policy and tourism for permanent and temporary citizens

New Report: Creating Synergies Between Cultural Policy and Tourism for Permanent and Temporary Citizens

A new, free report, tackles the so-called 'overtourism' phenomenon in 6 cities in a calm and methodic way.  It is written by Greg Richards, Professor of Placemaking and Events at Breda University and Lénia Marques, Assistant Professor of Cultural Organisation and Management at the Erasmus University in Rotterdam and is published by the United Cities and Local Governments (UCLG) network. The report examines how cultural policy can contribute to the management and development of tourism, and how tourism can contribute to supporting urban cultures. It concentrates on the cities of Amsterdam, Barcelona, Copenhagen, Lisbon, Montreal and Rome, and seeks to add new perspectives to current debates on 'overtourism' and the growth of the sharing economy.  It concludes that "the relationship between culture and tourism can be shifted from providing ‘culture for tourists’ to attracting ‘tourists for culture’ who can help to support the cultural ecosystem of the city".

Richards, G. and Marques, L., (2018) “Creating synergies between cultural policy and tourism
for permanent and temporary citizens”. Barcelona: UCLG.

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